To understand scripture it is necessary to understand the words the Bible uses to convey its truths. This is especially true in regards to the character of God and the gospel both of which have been misunderstood. There are two major and very different ways (or paradigms) with which to understand much of scripture. The words included in this glossary will be examined in relation to both “The Biblical Healing Model” and “The Traditional Legal Model” of the gospel. Which model a person holds to very much affects their understanding of the character of God.
Only brief definitions, usually in relation to the two models, will be given on this page. For each word, there is (or will be) a link to a more extensive discussion in terms of some or all of the following especially in relation to the two gospel models and the character of God.
- The Modern Dictionary Definition – The source of definitions used here (unless indicated otherwise) is: http://www.dictionary.com/
- Definitions in Earlier Dictionaries – Translators of the King James Version (published 1611) would have understood according to then-current definitions. Most other versions we use came out after 1611. Since words can change meaning over time, it makes sense to see if certain words had different meanings closer to the time they were incorporated into the Bible versions we are looking at. The source most used here is the 1828 edition of Webster’s Dictionary found at: http://webstersdictionary1828.com/
- Greek/Hebrew Word Meanings – The source of definitions most used here is The Online Bible (http://www.onlinebible.net/)
- Other sources – Links may also be provided to other authors who have given particularly good explanations of particular words.
- Biblical Usage – looking at how the Bible itself uses the original words in various contexts can often tell us much about their meaning. Verses referred to will be from The King James Version unless specified. This can be very important in determining word meanings. To a considerable degree, the Bible can be its own dictionary.
- Key examples from the Bible will be given in many cases. In fact, one of the best ways to understand many words is to understand how the Bible itself defines them. By looking at all the verses using a particular original word, always in context, the meaning often becomes much clearer. That, of course, tends to make word studies much longer.
How about letting the Bible itself tell us what its words mean? Isn’t that logical?
To illustrate and quickly summarize major differences between the two models, here are brief descriptions written to include the majority of words in the glossary.
The Legal Model
God designed His law and imposed arbitrary penalties – ultimately, death – for violations which are called sins. Since He is a God of justice, evil stirs up His anger or wrath which must be appeased by a sacrifice including the shedding of blood. Those who finally reject salvation come under the awful curse of God who hates sin and will finally take vengeance by smiting them with fire from heaven – the second death.
A sinner whose guilty conscience brings conviction for his sinfulness can confess and be granted forgiveness because the ransom has been provided to legally cancel the debt. The propitiation brings atonement for the sins, the record of which is then erased from the books of heaven. The repentant sinner, by faith, is justified and declared to be righteous. Having received salvation, he grows in sanctification towards perfection and, in the final investigative judgment, he will not come under condemnation.
The Healing Model
God designed His law as the law of life, violations of which have intrinsic, natural consequences leading towards death. Those who rebel against His law of love will exhibit that rebellion in unrighteous acts – sins. This state of sinfulness causes condemnation in the conscience and has punishment built into it. When a person persists in rejection of and distrust in God, He honors that free-will choice and in “anger” leaves the sinner to the consequences (effectively, the penalty) of his choices.
If guilt brings conviction enough to cause a sinner to choose repentance he will receive forgiveness already granted by God to all. A realization of the grace and glory (character) of God to provide salvation leads the sinner to trust (have faith in) God; to be justified or set right with Him – what the Bible calls atonement – the condition of being “at one” with God. The repentant sinner then, as He beholds the righteousness of Christ, grows in sanctification towards perfection of character. Christ’s life (typified by His blood) and sacrifice frees (ransoms) us from what held us captive – the lies of Satan and our own sinful natures.
To Get the Message You Need to Know the Meaning of the Words
The descriptions above will be much more understandable when the proper definitions for the terms are understood. You will see that the two models are very different indeed. One has to think of what Paul said very early in Christian history:
“I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:” (Gal 1:6)
There are other words (not used in the Bible) that help to understand the terms in this glossary. Those are listed at the bottom of this page along with the glossary entries in which their definitions and any discussion are found.
Any verses quoted or referenced on this page or pages for individual terms use the King James Version unless indicated otherwise.
Remember, short descriptions only are included here. Word definitions may be updated with further information (or in response to reader feedback). Follow the headings for each word which are links (when available) to more detailed studies of individual words. Remember, the emphasis is on how word meanings vary between the two models of the gospel.
Now, here is (the beginnings of) the glossary:
Advocate – see entry for Intercession
Appease (follow link for detailed definition)
Traditional Legal Model – thought of in the sense of satisfying the wrath of an offended God.
Biblical Healing Model – the Bible does not use the word in relation to God. He does not need to be appeased.
Traditional Legal Model – satisfaction of God’s justice by a legal payment of debt.
Biblical Healing Model – the process to become or the state of being at one with God.
Blood (link will be added when detailed definition is posted)
Traditional Legal Model – “Blood” (the bodily fluid) is the means or currency used for the payment for sin. Shed blood is required for sin to be cancelled (Heb 9:22).
Biblical Healing Model – The blood is a metaphor representing the life. So Jesus’ blood stands for His life. We are saved by His life (Rom 5:10).
Blot (Blot Out)
Traditional Legal Model – When payment in blood has been made and accepted by the sinner, the debt of his guilt and record of his sin is blotted out.
Biblical Healing Model – Heaven’s objective is to blot sin out from the heart/mind of the sinner so that it no longer has dominion over him.
Books (Records of Heaven)
Traditional Legal Model – a legal account of every sin committed and pardoned or not as the basis for judgment (Rev 20:12)
Biblical Healing Model – a record of each person’s character including whether they trust in God or not (much like medical records)
Traditional Legal Model – Christ pleading with His Father to convince Him to forgive us.
Biblical Healing Model – Christ and His Father together dealing with evil, the forces of nature and with ourselves for our benefit.
Traditional Legal Model – justice demands the penalty/wages of death and eternal separation from God. It is only satisfied if the guilty person pays that penalty of if someone else pays on his behalf. Justice is retributive.
Biblical Healing Model – justice is doing the right thing which is to restore to a right state, to heal and to save. It is right to treat others as we wish to be treated, to not hold grudges and to not keep account of sins. Justice is restorative.
Traditional Legal Model – the declaration that a person is right with God in a legal sense – his sins being forgiven and the penalty paid.
Biblical Healing Model – to cure man’s condition in the sense of setting man’s heart right (or justifying it) with God.
Kill (Includes discussion of “murder”)
Traditional Legal Model – To kill as in “Thou shalt not kill” (The sixth commandment, Exo 20:13) is to commit what we would call murder, the malicious and unjustified taking of another life. It does not include killing in self-defense, times of war or in judicial acts.
Biblical Healing Model – To kill is to take the life of another human under any circumstances or for any reason.
Traditional Legal Model – rules made by God to govern our behavior which, if transgressed, incur the penalty/wages of death (Rom 6:23).
Biblical Healing Model – “law” is used in two major ways:
- God’s law is the design template for life and is based on love, the defining characteristic of God, (“God is love” – 1 John 4:8) deviations from which, if not corrected, naturally end in death.
- Specific laws given as diagnostic tools (“By the law is the knowledge of sin” – Rom 3:20) to show man his condition – whether or not he is in harmony with God’s law which is the principle of love and the template for life.
Love is defined in a practical way by the life and words of Jesus Who came to show the true meaning of “God is love” (1 John 3:4, 8). From the perspective of the two models of the gospel, the “definitions” below point out the major difference in how God’s love functions toward sinners.
Traditional Legal Model – Because of God’s love, He sent His Son to pay the legal penalty of death so that He could forgive and save us.
Biblical Healing Model – Because God loves us, He forgives us unconditionally, holds nothing against us and sent His Son to show what that love is like.
“In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him.” (1 John 4:9)
Notice that, in the Healing Model, the forgiveness came even before Jesus was sent (and came willingly). Because of the hardness of hearts, that revelation of His Father’s love was almost entirely rejected with the result that wicked men betrayed and murdered Him (Acts 7:52).
Murder – see entry for Kill
Mediator – see entry for Intercession
Traditional Legal Model – Sin is simply the act of breaking God’s rules. If He says don’t do it and you do it then that is a sin; you have sinned and you are a sinner. Breaking His rules requires the administration of a penalty to maintain God’s justice.
Biblical Healing Model – A sin is the act of breaking God’s “rules.” However, the rules must be understood correctly (see “law“) as diagnostic tools to show us our condition; our sinful nature. That sinful nature is a mind that does not trust God fully and may even be in full rebellion against Him. The word “sin” can describe any of:
- a choice to willfully rebel against God
- our sinful nature (sinful flesh)
- individual acts (symptoms of that sinful, fallen condition)
Complete List of Glossary Words
Here are all the words that have definitions in the glossary or for which definitions may be added. Note that completing this project will take quite a while – possibly into early 2019. Other words could be added and some could be dropped or grouped together.
Anger, appease, atonement, blood, blot (blot out), books (records), condemnation, conscience, conviction, curse, debt, discipline, evil, faith, fear, fierce, fire, fire (coals of), forgiveness, glory, gospel, grace, guilt, hardened, hate, hell, holy (holiness), imparted/imputed, intercession, investigative jealous, judgment, judgment, justice, justification, kill, law, lawlessness, love, murder, name, penalty, perfection, propitiation, punishment, ransom, reconciliation, repentance, righteousness, sacrifice, salvation, sanctification, sanctuary, satisfaction, second death, sent, sin, sinfulness, smote, sword, tempt, veil, vengeance, visit, worship, wrath.
These words do not appear in the Bible but are useful to know the meaning of in order to understand words in the glossary. For definitions and any discussion see the bottom of glossary entries they are associated with.
Supplemental Word See Glossary Entry
Additional words will be added as the articles/definitions are completed. If you would like to receive notice as new words are posted, click the link for newsletters in the upper right of this page. If you see issues with my wording in any of these definitions please let me know.